Pain treatments:Surgical solutions...The presence of a prolapsed disc fragment causing pain and unresolved by intervention may require surgical removal to resolve the condition. Similarly pain arising from a degenerate disc may respond well to a surgical fusion of the spinal bones to stabilise the mobile spinal segment. Nerves may be affected when passing through or over other tissues or bones and pain may be produced by a chronic constriction injury to the nerve in conditions such as merelgia paraesthetic, cervical rib syndrome, ulnar nerve syndrome and carpal tunnel constriction. The surgical release of the nerve entrapment will allow the nerve to return to normal function in many cases and reduce or eliminate the pain problem.Joint degeneration is a major cause of chronic pain and the results of joint replacement or arthroscopic procedures are recognised to be an important advance in the resolution of degenerative conditions or the knee, hip, shoulder, elbow and ankle.A number of painful conditions respond well to the direct treatment of the local nerves. Conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia, facet syndrome, chronic sacroiliac pain and some peripheral conditions are described.